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The Choice Factory

25 behavioural biases that influence what we buy

By Richard Shotton

Paperback £14.99 / $19.99
eBook £11.49 / $14.99
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The Choice Factory

25 behavioural biases that influence what we buy

By Richard Shotton

Jacket text

Before you can influence decisions, you need to understand what drives them. In The Choice Factory, Richard Shotton sets out to help you learn.

By observing a typical day of decision-making, from trivial food choices to significant work-place moves, he investigates how our behaviour is shaped by psychological shortcuts. With a clear focus on the marketing potential of knowing what makes us tick, Shotton has drawn on evidence from academia, real-life ad campaigns and his own original research.

The Choice Factory is written in an entertaining and highly-accessible format, with 25 short chapters, each addressing a cognitive bias and outlining simple ways to apply it to your own marketing challenges. Supporting his discussion, Shotton adds insights from new interviews with some of the smartest thinkers in advertising, including Rory Sutherland, Lucy Jameson and Mark Earls.

From priming to the pratfall effect, charm pricing to the curse of knowledge, the science of behavioural economics has never been easier to apply to marketing.

The Choice Factory is the new advertising essential.

About the author

Richard is the Founder of Astroten, a consultancy that applies findings from behavioural science to marketing.

Richard was Deputy Head of Evidence at Manning Gottlieb OMD, the most awarded media agency in the history of the IPA Effectiveness awards.

He started his career as a media planner 17 years ago, working on accounts such as Coke, 118 118 and comparethemarket.com, before moving into research.

Richard is interested in how findings from behavioural science can be applied to advertising. He writes about the behavioural experiments he runs for titles such as The Drum, Campaign, WARC, Admap and Mediatel. He tweets about the latest social psychology findings from the handle @rshotton.

Reviews

The Choice Factory is both practical and deeply profound due to Richard Shotton’s expertise from extensive research as well as from advertising.

So, if you are to read only one book that will make you master of behavioural economics I would highly recommend – The Choice Factory.

Lars Bo Christiansen – CMO / Marketing Director

If you’re in the business of influencing people then Richard’s book is a must read. It provides a welter of practical advice on how behavioural science can be harnessed by businesses .

Dan Pink, author of When: The Scientific Secrets of Perfect Timing

The Choice Factory is a fun easy read packed with sound research that marketers can apply to their businesses immediately.

Nir Eyal, author of Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products

“The Choice Factory” is the most popular new book for marketers so far this year. Well read, well discussed and well liked from everyone, it casts an eye on the the history of how customers come to given decisions, and the psychological background behind them doing so. “

Imperica

“Perhaps one of the best aspects of working in marketing and advertising is being given the chance to take on interesting challenges, to overcome tricky obstacles and to solve, at times strange but fascinating, puzzles. For those working in marketing and advertising with a desire to be more effective in addressing these challenges, obstacles and puzzles, Richard Shotton’s entertaining and practical book is the ideal guide.”

Robert Thackerey, AdMap

‘… the easiest to read and most actionable.’

Marketing Effectiveness Reading List – Part 2

I would therefore recommend this book to the whole marketing profession as it will enable us all to stand back and consider how we influence consumers to buy products or participate in market research. Well worth the read!

Alan Wilson, University of Strathclyde, UK

Richard is genuinely interested in human behaviour and how it drives our decisions; this book is easy to read and not dry based in the subject-matter. It is a must-read for modern marketers.

IAA Education Matters Newsletter – Q2 2018

This beautifully written book brings to life the counter-intuitive ways in which we make our everyday decisions.

Jules Goddard, Fellow, London Business School

“At last someone has written a commonsense, practical guide to using behavioural science to sell things. It is backed by lots of research and working examples drawn from the author’s own experience and his encyclopedic knowledge of the industry. In short, this is a classic advertising textbook in the making.”

Steve Harrison, British copywriter, creative director and author

This book is a Haynes Manual for understanding consumer behaviour. You should buy a copy – and then buy another copy to give to one of the 97% of people in marketing who are too young to remember what a bloody Haynes Manual is.

Rory Sutherland, columnist for The Spectator and Executive Creative Director, Ogilvy One

Most books in this area are academic and dry as dust. If you want to know how research and sociology can impact on real life in the real world, Richard’s book will show you – using simple words and examples that real people can understand.

Dave Trott – creative director, author of Predatory Thinking and founder of three creative agencies

In a cacophony of overstatement, Richard Shotton possesses a melodious and balanced voice. In this short but powerful tome you can learn about how marketing actually does influence consumers. Or, for the more prosaic among us, how to get people to re-use towels, buy wine when German Oompah music is playing and select a broadband supplier by mentioning Charing Cross Station. The book also mentions me (all too briefly) which I also find enticing.

Mark Ritson, columnist for Marketing Week and Professor at Melbourne business school

Actionable, memorable and powerful… Shotton has taken the jewels of behavioral economics and made them practical.

Seth Godin, author of ‘All Marketers are Liars’

Comprehensive, compelling and immensely practical, the Choice Factory brings the building blocks of behaviour change together in one place.

Richard Huntington, Chairman & Chief Strategy Officer, Saatchi & Saatchi

A top-class guide for those who want to put BE to work, rather than just illuminate their journey to work.

Mark Earls, author of ‘Herd’

A guide to your own mind, a roadmap of your blind spots, a toolkit for better advertising. The Choice Factory employs robust behavioral science in an approachable manner to demonstrate how you make and influence decisions.  Synthesizing a vast body of research, live experiments and numerous examples, he shows that there is a bias for every occasion and how to use them as tools to craft better communications. 

Faris Yakob, author of Paid Attention

Richard delivers a wealth of cases proving the efficacy of working with, rather than against, the grain of human nature. This is catnip for the industry.

Phil Barden, author of ‘Decoded: The Science Behind Why We Buy

Richard Shotton’s application of behavioural economics is bang on the button. This book is timely, insightful, fascinating and entertaining.

Dominic Mills, ex-editor of Campaign

If you’re a marketer, understanding what really makes people tick – as opposed to what they might tell you – is vital. This book takes us on an elegant, witty and digestible tour of the 25 main principles of behavioural science. Richard Shotton has read widely so that you don t have to, but he gives full credit to his many sources should you wish to pursue any of the topics further. This is a delightful and indispensable read for anyone in marketing, particularly those early in their careers.

Tess Alps, Chair of Thinkbox, the UK’s marketing body for commercial broadcasters

Media coverage

From Magnetic:

Publishers have a wealth of insight that quantifies the important role that magazines play in people’s lives. The affinity consumers have for the content they read, increases the likelihood of action being taken. We also know that magazines are seen as time well spent (PAMCo), and when people are in a positive frame of mind,… Read more »

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From Think Box:

Behavioral scientist and author of The Choice Factory, Richard Shotton, explains why life-changing events such as we are living thorough now will change customers purchasing habits – and brands should avoid being left behind.

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From Onrec:

Richard Shotton, Behavioural Scientist and Author of ‘The Choice Factory’, said: “The way people claim to behave versus how they actually behave are two very different things. Recruitment is about understanding people; improving knowledge about the inherent biases in human behavior will have important implications for the industry. While behavioural science is increasingly used in… Read more »

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From The Times India:

Richard Shotton, author and behaviourall science expert quoted the example to highlight the bias of overconfidence and how marketers tend to overlook behavioural science, while making marketing decisions.

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From afaqs! :

Shotton is also the author of The Choice Factory, a book on how to apply findings from behavioural science to advertising. He started his career as a media planner 19 years ago, working on accounts such as Coke, Lexus, and comparethemarket.com.

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From WARC:

As Richard Shotton points out in his book about behavioural economics in advertising, The Choice Factory, at the 2001 launch of the iPod, most other mp3 players shipped with unremarkable headphones, the devices hidden. Apple’s iPod, meanwhile, shipped with striking white headphones – powered by the wildly famous silhouettes campaign – “their distinctiveness made Apple… Read more »

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From The Behaviours Agency:

The generation effect is a memory bias, first reported by Norman Slamecka and Peter Graf at the University of Toronto in 1978. They devised a study to explore whether self-generated words are easier to remember than externally provided words.

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From Planning, BIM & Construction Today:

The insight provided through The Choice Factory has allowed our industry to consider the ‘psycho-logical’ barriers to adopting offsite construction; unlocking a whole new approach for accelerating an ‘offsite revolution’. Through the application of behavioural science, we are turning the spotlight away from issues of fragmentation, low margins, imbalances in risk apportionment and low R&D… Read more »

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From Research World:

This is an excerpt from Choice Factory: 25 behavioural biases that influence what we buy by Richard Shotton.

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From Herald Scotland:

Speakers at Make Disruption Pay: Striking the Balance, will consider issues such as how firms can ensure marketing spending delivers short-term results while their investment builds brand loyalty over the long term. The event will be run by brand and communications specialist Dentsu Aegis Network Scotland with The Herald as media partner. The speakers will… Read more »

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From Marketing Week:

Behavioural science identifies a range of profitable pricing tactics. Test which one works best for you. Richard Shotton is founder of the consultancy Astroten and author of The Choice Factory, a book about applying behavioural science to advertising. He tweets at @rshotton.

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From El Mundo:

Richard Shotton believes that brands “overvalue the effects of technology” and that we are “irrational.” His book ‘The Choice Factory’ is a ‘bible’ in the world of marketing.

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From Modern Wisdom:

Richard Shotton is a behavioural scientist, the Founder of Astroten and an author. What is the reason that restaurants don’t put £ signs in front of their prices? Why do marketing campaigns with huge flaws end up winning the market over? How does increasing wait times on comparison sites improve customer buy-in? And why do… Read more »

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From AQR: The Association for Qualitative Research:

Webinar presented by Richard Shotton.

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From Martech Alliance:

There had been “too much description of behavioural biases and experiments, and not enough about the practical application” Richard Shotton told us when asked about the motivation behind his book. Choice FactoryThe Choice Factory, 25 Behavioural Biases That Influence What We Buy chronicles what Shotton considered to be the most relevant biases that can be… Read more »

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From More About Advertising:

In fact, the case for behavioural economics in advertising goes further. As Richard Shotton argues in his brilliant book The Choice Factory, it improves quality too. If brands want sustainable success, they need to ‘nudge for the long term,’ by delivering good enough quality and value for customers to want to come back for more.… Read more »

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From ADC Italia:

**Translated from Italian** In his column Pasquale Diaferia takes inspiration from the book ‘The Choice Factory’ by Richard Shotton to remember that “if we do not let ourselves be influenced by the real behaviour of those who are subjected to our communication, we and our brands will be ignored, undervalued, put in a bad way… Read more »

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From Nudge; consumer psychology podcast:

Did you know that companies spend millions trying to discover when customers have kids? In this episode I chat to best-selling author Richard Shotton about the power of habit. He explains how life events encourage purchases, why those aged 49 are more likely to run a marathon and how Sainsbury’s used habitual marketing to generate… Read more »

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From PPR Consulting:

4. The Choice Factory | Richard Shotton | @rshotton The aim of PR is to reach an audience through earned media to influence them: usually to buy your stuff. But if you don’t understand how your customer thinks, or what behavioural biases will either deter them from buying (or convert awareness into action) you can’t… Read more »

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From Marketing IE:

Richard Shotton’s recent book The Choice Factory is arguably the most practical guide to behavioural economics, with an overview of how findings from behavioural science can be applied to marketing communications. Shotton argues that the short-cuts we make in System 1 thinking are prone to bias so we must be aware of them and use… Read more »

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From Business Book Awards:

‘The Choice Factory’ has won the Sales and Marketing category in the 2019 Business Book Awards.

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From South African Journal of Marketing Research:

Excerpt from The Choice Factory by Richard Shotton.

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From South African Journal of Marketing Research:

If you follow marketing or market research, you will probably have at least heard of behavioural science. At the heart of this field is the premise that people don’t think deeply about every decision they make. They take mental shortcuts in order to make quick decisions without much effort. This works for us most of… Read more »

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From PM Magazine:

If you were at the PM Forum conference in September you’d have heard Richard Shotton explain how professional services firms can apply the findings of behavioural science to their marketing … But if you missed the conference don’t worry – Richard’s analysed 25 of the most relevant biases in his book The Choice Factory.

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From Fupping:

The Choice Factory is most aptly described as not just a book to read, it’s one that yearns to be used. By combining a plethora of anecdotes and creative examples, Shotton brings the topic of behavioural science to life and demonstrates it’s role in marketing communications. Throughout, the book describes the behavioural biases that underline… Read more »

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From Turtl:

The Choice Factory by Richard Shotton – released February 2018 Richard Shotton sets out to help the reader understand what drives decisions and in turn, how they can then become the influencer within the process. The book is split into 25 short chapters, each tackling a different cognitive bias and looking at ways to apply… Read more »

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From Belfast Telegraph:

His book, The Choice Factory, was one of the top selling marketing books on Amazon last year and his 18 year career spans working for Coke, Lexus and comparethemarket.com. The event has been described as a great opportunity to hear from one of the marketing gurus of our time and is suited to anyone in… Read more »

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From lurocomnect:

Building a brand is tough – what’s worse is that destroying a brand is easy. Standing on the top of the roof and shouting (ok, nationwide TV ads on a major sporting event) does not build a brand with the message you want. People have biases and they react to the message. Effectively brand is… Read more »

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From MoneyWeek:

If you make a living from selling, or you want to understand more about how other people are selling stuff to you, then this is a good, quick-to-read primer on 25 behavioural biases that influence our purchasing decisions, many of which keen readers of behavioural economics will recognise only too well.

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From Left B.R.A.I.N Blog:

On november 8 2018, Richard Shotton spoke at B.R.A.I.N.Creatives HQ in Amsterdam. The event was sold out, with guests coming from all over the Netherlands and even traveling from abroad. Shotton’s remarkable popularity has as much to do with his bestselling book The Choice Factory as with his brilliant Twitter feed. In fact, the two… Read more »

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From The Holmes Report:

Richard Shotton, head of behavioural science at Manning Gottlieb OMD, published The Choice Factory early in 2017, outlining 25 common biases that affect consumers’ responsiveness to brand messages and advertising. He joined me in the Echo Chamber to talk about his distinctly unstuffy book — described by Ogilvy’s Rory Sutherland as “a Haynes Manual for… Read more »

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From Anuncios:

Shotton, who has answered the questions by email, was the guest speaker at the recently held professional conference of the Association of Magazines of Spain (ARI), where he gave a lecture on behavioral biases and the way in which They make decisions, and how marketing can take advantage of them. To this same topic he… Read more »

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From The Drum:

The Choice Factory author told The Drum that purpose is but a single tool available to marketers. He said: “If you only have one tool, you force all your problems to fit that tool. To a man with a hammer, every problem is a nail. That is the problem with purpose.”

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From Media Post:

In this week’s episode of “Marketing Today,” I speak with Richard Shotton, author of the book, “The Choice Factory: 25 Behavioural Biases That Influence What We Buy,” which was published earlier this year.

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From Canadian Marketing Association:

Richard Shotton, author of The Choice Factory, recently visited DDB Vancouver to talk to their staff about how behavioural science can be applied to advertising. Below he covers some of the main questions he discussed…

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From The Holmes Report:

The Echo Chamber talks to Richard Shotton and discusses whether PR needs to get a better grip on behavioural science.

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From Marketing Week:

Businesses often default to trying to reshape objective reality. This tends to be eye-wateringly expensive and prohibitively time-consuming.

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From PAZARLAMA Turkiye:

“You must understand what triggers them in order to influence decisions,” Shotton said, examining the behavior of people in the buying process and examining how these behaviors are coded psychologically. He thinks that brands will achieve success by taking into account behavioral science in their marketing strategies. According to Shotton, this book provides marketers with… Read more »

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From AdFormatie:

It seems obvious that many of our spending decisions are in uenced by the past. Consider how you pick a restaurant. You think about your previous visits: the taste of the food, the charm of the waiter and, of course, the pain of the bill. However, strictly speaking it’s not the past that shapes our… Read more »

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From Strategy:

Brands must seek inspiration from beyond their category. If they do so they will see one of the common factors of the few brands who have created a genuine step-change in their category is that they were highly distinctive. As the founder of BBH, John Hegarty put it in his ad for black Levi’s “when… Read more »

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From Marklives.com:

In this extract from his new book, The Choice Factory: 25 Behavioural Biases That Influence What We Buy, Richard Shotton delves into the world of bias, an aspect of human nature that shapes our choices without us even consciously knowing about it.

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From Marketing Week:

Brand purpose is literally up for debate when nay- and yay-sayers Richard Shotton (author, Marketing Week columnist and head of behavioural science at Manning Gottlieb OMD).

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From Research World:

So, where many look forward Choice Factory looks back. Where the majority say go big, Richard Shotton says think small. That’s why Choice Factory is the zag to many zigging books available to marketing and research professionals. It is for that reason, I need to reiterate: “If you work in research, you need to read… Read more »

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From Strategy:

Manning Gottlieb OMD’s Richard Shotton uses behavioural psychology to show that the perfect brand strategy is to be imperfect.

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From Dennikn (Slovakian publication):

To read the full article here (assuming your Slovakian is up to scratch!)

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From ReasonWhy:

The book “The Choice Factory” by Richard Shotton explores and explains the trends behind consumer behavior. Throughout 25 chapters he explains how humans really make decisions Read the full article here.

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From Instituto Mexicano de Economia del Comportamiento:

Read the full article here.

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From Campaign:

Your main task this afternoon is to interview the last two candidates for the position of manager on your team. At the close of the second interview you realise both candidates have the same relevant experience, strong academic results and practical ideas to implement once they start. You’re wondering how you’ll ever choose between them.… Read more »

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From Arab Ad:

Richard Shotton’s book, The Choice Factory, investigates how behavioural science can be applied to advertising. In the following interview, Shotton elaborates further on this topic and the research behind the making of the book. Read the full article here.

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From Muse:

Brands must seek inspiration from beyond their category. If they do so, they will see one of the common factors of the few brands who have created a genuine step-change in their category is that they were highly distinctive. As the founder of BBH, John Hegarty, put it in his ad for black Levi’s, “When… Read more »

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From Brand News:

Have you ever noticed the posters in the doctor’s office that tell how many people do not bother to show up for their appointments? Or seen the charity appeal on Wikipedia that explains how most readers do not support it with donations? It is a common tactic that aims to shock people with frightening numbers… Read more »

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From Marketing Directo:

Making use of behavioral science, which helps to understand how people make their decisions, can help companies solve this problem. This is what Richard Shotton expresses in his latest book for marketing professionals entitled “The Choice Factory: 25 behavioral biases that influence what we buy”. Throughout the 25 short chapters of “The Choice Factory”, the… Read more »

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From The Marketing Society: The Library:

I think it’s well worth a read. … One of my favourite chapters is about the power of personalisation, which is often ascribed to the fact that our subconscious deals with most of our sensory input and only a fraction is consciously processed and one way in which the brain selects what is worthy of… Read more »

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From Blog 42:

Shotton is considered one of the brightest minds in the UK advertising industry. As Deputy Head of Evidence at the media agency Manning Gottlieb OMD, he works with some of the world’s leading brands including Virgin, Coke, Halifax and many more. His debut book has been a runaway success and was described by TED speaker… Read more »

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From Campaign Brief:

… Says Shotton: “Over the last few years I’ve conducted dozens of experiments and worked with many brands and shown time and time again that the application of behavioural science improves effectiveness. I want more brands to benefit from the application of behavioural science to solve their problems. This book should help do that as… Read more »

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From Tarsh Partnership:

The book provides invaluable knowledge for you to act on. There’s something to learn and apply in every chapter. I particularly enjoyed the irrefutable proof that advertising has to be distinctive, otherwise it’s a waste of money. I loved the Marketing Triage model based on Napoleon’s chief surgeon; as well as Shotton’s brutally logical dismantling… Read more »

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From BBC Radio 4 :

The Choice Factory by Richard Shotton featured on BBC Radio 4 Programme ‘Nudge Nudge’.

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From Marketing Week:

Marketers, like all humans, believe everyone is as interested in their work as they are, leading to ads that fall at the first hurdle by taking it for granted that they will be noticed.

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From Imperica:

“There are lots of amazing books about popular psychology, but few of them apply it to advertising. I felt that there was a real gap for a practical, simple book that applied behavioural science to advertising…”

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From Mediatel:

In his hugely popular book The Choice Factory, Richard Shotton explains how behavioural science can be applied to advertising and how a few simple tricks can help marketers improve the effectiveness of campaigns and influence what consumers buy.

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From Mumbrella:

The key point about the cobra effect is that when you set a naïve target, it encourages behaviour that superficially meets that target, rather than the underlying goal. The targets set on most digital activity measure short-term effects: immediate sales, visits, views. These short-term approaches are popular as they’re easy to measure. However, ease and… Read more »

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From WARC:

“Perhaps one of the best aspects of working in marketing and advertising is being given the chance to take on interesting challenges, to overcome tricky obstacles and to solve, at times strange but fascinating, puzzles. For those working in marketing and advertising with a desire to be more effective in addressing these challenges, obstacles and… Read more »

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From Mumbrella:

Opinion piece by author of The Choice Factory Richard Shotton. “…It’s not just that these marketing predictions misguide us. There’s also an opportunity cost. Our fixation with the future crowds out an interest in the past. Yet there is value in looking backwards to people who grappled with similar problems to ours.”

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From Mediatel:

Richard argued that goalkeepers have an implicit bias towards diving because that is the norm and what people expect a goalkeeper to do. If you dive and don’t make a save it’s seen as bad luck – but if you stand still and don’t make a save you seem incompetent. The effectiveness of their choice… Read more »

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From Marketing Effectiveness:

‘… the easiest to read and most actionable.’

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From Brewin Dolphin magazine:

In a new book called The Choice Factory… the author Richard Shotton highlights the phenomenal power of social proof to change consumer behaviour. For example, what is the best way to get hotel guests to re-use towels?

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From Mumbrella:

Most gourmets would agree that the best food available to man is the salt and vinegar chip. The combination of crunch, vinegary bite and salty tang is unbeatable. But the chip aficionados among you will have noticed that premium brands are not satisfied with humble flavours. Simple labels are being replaced with grandiose. No longer… Read more »

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From Mumbrella:

The Choice Factory author Richard Shotton argues that the methodology behind brand purpose is flawed, and is being perpetrated by adlanders who want to feel better about their jobs.

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From Branding Strategy Insider:

Brands must recognize that much of advertising’s impact comes from implicit communication. There is a role, even in the era of procurement, for bold brand statements. The occasional extravagance displays a confidence that mere ad claims cannot emulate. You can find more ideas like this in my new book The Choice Factory: 25 Behavioral Biases… Read more »

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From Biz Community:

What do you think is the greatest ad campaign ever? Coca-Cola? Apple? Levi’s? All great choices, but I’d argue that the most effective ad of all time was by De Beers. And part of its success was through the smart application of a simple psychological bias. A bias that you can still apply today.

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From Level Marketing:

Read the full article here.

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From Marketing Week:

Marketing Week reviews the latest books for marketers. … In his book, which is an overview of how behavioural science experiments can be applied to marketing and advertising, he runs through the full list. If advertisers are aware of the biases, and adapt their products and communications, they can use them to their advantage, he… Read more »

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From Digital Grads:

It’s safe to say that the marketing landscape has changed significantly in recent times. As a marketer, it’s very important to make sure you stay on top of trends, which becomes increasingly difficult due to how quickly marketing changes. Though these days we get most of our information in blog posts, videos and on social… Read more »

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From Branding Strategy Insider:

In his latest article, Richard Shotton looks at delivering distinctiveness and looks at resolving the principal-agent problem. He asks: Knowing that your ads need to be distinctive is helpful, but how do you standout? In this piece, he remarks “most brands abide by category conventions. Break those conventions and you become distinctive.” “The best way… Read more »

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From International Journal of Market Research:

… Well worth the read!! … Many of the books on behavioural science and behavioural economics are slightly stuffy and can often be a difficult read, but this is the exact opposite. It is also the sort of book you can dip in and out of using it as a guide in relation to topics… Read more »

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From Branding in Asia:

Shotton’s interesting book follows a single person through their day and analyzes 25 of their decisions. Read the full interview with Bobby McGill here: https://brandinginasia.com/interview-richard-shotton/

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From Mumbrella:

As more and more brands bombard their customers with a monotonous list of reasons why they’re wonderful, Richard Shotton details why we need to embrace the negative. … This article has been adapted from Richard Shotton’s book The Choice Factory’

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From Raconteur:

Human reaction to numbers is riddled with quirks. Richard Shotton’s new book The Choice Factory examines the ability of businesses to harness these biases to influence consumers. For example, tweaking prices by a fraction can boost sales. Discount stores use charm pricing, knocking a penny off to end in “99”.

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From Marketing Week:

…. Think about Listerine, which publicised its bitter taste with the strapline ‘The taste you hate, twice a day’ …. The campaign recognised that exhibiting a weakness didn’t make them look weak. In fact, not only did it corroborate a mirror strength, it made them seem self-confident and their competitors, by contrast, needy. So next… Read more »

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From Print Power:

There’s no evidence that print has lost its impact on a per-impression basis. Q. Has print as a medium lost its impact? RS: There’s no evidence that print has lost its impact on a per-impression basis. However, that’s not to say print deserves the same volume of investment as it has historically received.

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From Print Power:

Cognitive biases affect professionals as well as consumers. One of the most relevant biases that sometimes afflicts media planners is the false consensus effect.

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From Campaign:

MullenLowe London’s former head of strategy says Richard Shotton’s book The Choice Factory is a must-read for anyone in marketing and advertising – not just planners. … The Choice Factory by Richard Shotton – an excellent new book that gives you practical advice on how to apply behavioural science in your work. It’s a book… Read more »

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From Independent.ie:

Marketers who openly admit their brands’ flaws and follow a line of self-deprecation can be business successes, British adman and ‘Choice Factory’ author Richard Shotton claims.

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From Marketing Week:

Behavioural insights show targeting the average consumer can backfire among key groups, even it succeeds among the majority, which is an argument for in-depth research on individual segments… … Beware averages, otherwise you risk being like the apocryphal statistician who drowned crossing a stream with an average depth of six inches. … Richard Shotton is… Read more »

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From Lumen Research:

Richard Shotton’s The Choice Factory is the best-selling book on advertising in the UK at the moment. Shotton helps you to understand what really drives and influences decisions, building on insights from such luminaries as Lucy Jameson and Mark Earls – and Lumen Research! We are honoured to be a part of such an important… Read more »

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From Ezonomics:

Many of the commercials you encounter every day will be using psychological tactics You might think you’re immune to advertising – that your decisions are entirely conscious and rational. But many of the commercials you encounter every day – on your TV, on your computer, on the street – will include psychological tactics you’re not… Read more »

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From Mumbrella:

Richard Shotton explores why marketers are so fad-obsessed, using the unlikely metaphor of the penalty shoot out. Marketers need to apply the lessons of penalty taking to brands. If we do we’ll be in good company.

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From The Marketing Society:

The best way to ensure brands strive for distinctiveness is to popularise the principal-agent problem. If following the herd becomes equated with putting one’s career ahead of the brand’s needs, then it will become a disreputable tactic. Perhaps then we’ll see more brands admitting fallibilities.

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From The IPA Podcast:

“Great, new book.” “I’ve noticed a few people reading it on public transport so …obviously it’s selling. Brilliant!” “I absolutely recommend it for anyone who is yet to get hold of a copy … It’s crammed with real examples… a great book, warmly recommend everyone to get a copy of it.” “The book has an… Read more »

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From Canvas8:

Richard Shotton, author of The Choice Factory, argues that tech alone isn’t changing people’s core behaviours. Canvas8 speaks to Shotton about the behavioural biases that can be applied to help brands better understand consumers and shape behaviour …. The way to improve your research is to stop just listening to what customers say and start… Read more »

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From WARC:

Shotton’s book covers 25 scientifically demonstrated biases that can inform better advertising. Some have been used intuitively for years, like the power of social proof to persuade people, as reflected in all claims of popularity, such as the classic ‘8 out of 10 cats prefer Whiskas’ advertising. Others, like the importance of context in decoding… Read more »

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From Jazz FM:

Richard Shotton’s new book The Choice Factory is intended to be a handbook to marketeers and ad people … If you’re not one of those people it gives valuable insight into the mind games we consumers face minute by minute. Listen to the interview.

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From Talk Radio Europe:

Listen to the interview with Richard and Hannah Murray when they discuss the book in detail and discuss some of the 25 behavioural biases that influence the way we buy. The discussion around social proof and the pratfall effect are great!

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From The Independent:

Author Richard Shotton reveals how you can become a savvier shopper Shotton says that shoppers rely on a series of short-cuts to make decisions and it’s these short-cuts that are prone to biases which retailers can then use to encourage shoppers to spend more. For example, when you eat out at a restaurant, he suggests… Read more »

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From Shopper Marketing:

(Text below has been translated) Neuromarketing shows a similar development as shopper marketing. Both disciplines are relatively young, but all two have full growth potential. And moreover, behavioural science and shopper marketing will have more influence on the marketing playfield. … while the number of books on this subject is growing monthly. Recently, a new… Read more »

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From Branding Strategy Insider:

A taste of the article by Richard Shotton: It seems obvious that many of our spending decisions are influenced by the past. Consider how you pick a restaurant. You think about your previous visits: the taste of the food, the charm of the waiter and, of course, the pain of the bill. However, strictly speaking… Read more »

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From Marketing & Media at Bizcommunity.com :

If you’re in the persuasion game and you’ve ever wanted to better understand your consumers’ purchase behaviour, this is the interview for you! I caught up with Richard Shotton, deputy head of evidence of Manning Gottlieb OMD, and author of The Choice Factory: 25 Behavioural Biases That Influence What We Buy. He shares how behavioural… Read more »

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From The Creative Persuader:

Highly recommended… Very occasionally … a book will come along that I can happily suggest in these instances. Because it truly covers a lot of ground in an accessible way. Luke Sullivan’s classic Hey Whipple, Squeeze This is such a book about copywriting. And now, Richard Shotton has written one about applying behavioural economics to… Read more »

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From The Institute of Direct and Digital Marketing:

The smartest brands have recognised that exhibiting a flaw makes them more appealing, and they have use the pratfall effect to stand-out from their competitors. Consider, the DDB VW campaign. From 1959, they gloried in the flaws of the Beetle. The looks of the car were gently mocked with one print ad featuring a photo… Read more »

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From Independent.ie:

The Marketing Institute has announced speakers from Lego, Wieden + Kennedy, Brainlabs and Foresight Factory for the industry’s biggest annual conference…. DMX Dublin 2018 will involve over 30 overseas and local speakers, sharing insights and best practice with over 900 marketers… Richard Shotton is deputy head of evidence at Manning Gottlieb OMD, the most awarded… Read more »

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From Tutor2u:

A number of new books make it into my personal selection of enrichment and extension reading for A level economists as we head into the Spring…. Behavioural economics fans will enjoy Richard Shotton’s “Choice Factory” built on twenty-five behavioural biases that shape the decisions we make as consumers.

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From Mediatel:

Possibly bringing both conscious and unconscious biases to this week’s column, Dominic Mills reviews and digests the Choice Factory – Richard Shotton’s behavioural science bestseller … It’s a great read, fast-paced and easily accessible. Better than that, it’s the kind of book you can open at random and find something that both changes your perspective… Read more »

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From Mark Pollard, Strategy CEO, Mighty Jungle, New York :

Talking about biases, flaws and mirror strengths, the principal-agent problem, and the decline in rhyme. Listen to the podcast: https://www.dropbox.com/s/65h8k3n6kvo96cn/audio_only.m4a?dl=0

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From Media Marketing:

It’s better to base marketing decisions on experiments of Nobel Laureates than on the opinion of the most eloquent person in the board room. How do we make choices – any choices, all choices? According to various sources, an average adult person makes 35,000 decisions every day, but are all those choices we make actually… Read more »

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From B-C-ING-U.COM:

… Essential reading … Richard Shotton’s excellent paperback is a prime example of observation and investigation in the field of comprehending what makes each of us tick. Its contents are very human and engaging, while the language used is charming and immensely entertaining. If you own, or operate, a business, there is much to be… Read more »

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From Business Money :

If you have ever wondered what it is that influences our decisions to buy stuff, then it helps it you can get a handle on what techniques marketers employ to engage with their potential customers. Richard Shotton’s excellent paperback is a prime example of observation and investigation in the field of comprehending what makes each… Read more »

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From Rouser:

Curiously, the book undersells itself in promising an exploration of 25 biases that influence what we buy. That’s not quite true: the book is far better than that. Instead of a codex of biases, we’re treated to an exploration of 25 topics concerning buyer behaviour, marketing decision making, and the application of psychology to this… Read more »

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From Branding Strategy Insider:

What Can Brands Learn From The Social Nature Of Humor? The main point is that the wit of an ad is not just a creative issue but also one of context and media placement. The perception of humor can be boosted through channel selection or implementational tactics. One such tactic is to run copy in… Read more »

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From Proud Money:

Many of us think we’re too smart to fall for advertisers’ tricks. We won’t buy something because of a catchy jingle or famous spokesperson. But if you think those obvious tactics are the only things companies use to influence you, you are very much mistaken. And if you think you don’t fall for their tactics,… Read more »

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From Marketing Week:

Contrary to common belief, consumers are more likely to take action if the incentive is of uncertain value, offering a way to make loyalty schemes both cheaper and more effective. … Not only are uncertain rewards better at changing behaviour but they also cost less. … Richard Shotton is deputy head of evidence at Manning… Read more »

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From Marketing.ie:

The Marketing Institute has announced speakers from Lego, Wieden+Kennedy, Brainlabs and Foresight Factory as part of the DMX Dublin 2018 line-up… Richard Shotton is deputy head of evidence at Manning Gottlieb OMD, the most awarded media agency in the history of the IPA Effectiveness awards. He started his career as a media planner 17 years… Read more »

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From Branding Strategy Insider:

The agencies that focus most on the unchanging man will win the insight war. Contributed by Branding Strategy Insider by: Richard Shotton, the author of The Choice Factory, a new book on how to apply findings from behavioral science to advertising.

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From WARC:

Richard Shotton, author of “The Choice Factory” – which has won praise from Dave Trott, Rory Sutherland and Mark Ritson – will explore how findings from behavioural science can improve advertising. He’ll be discussing the most relevant insights from the book and how you can apply them to the advertising challenges you face.

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From Quartz at work:

An article adapted from the book The Choice Factory: For those prepared to embrace a modicum of career risk then the best chance of growing your brand is to flaunt your flaws. The principal-agent problem ensures it will always be a distinctive approach. For those interested in safe career progression then you may want to… Read more »

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From Campaign:

The danger of confirmation bias is just one of the topics in Richard Shotton’s new book, The Choice Factory, as he explains in this excerpt for Campaign. Features an excerpt from the book: Advertisers, therefore, have two options. The recommended route is to apply the process of marketing triage and avoid targeting rejecters and heavy… Read more »

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From Alugha.com:

Marketing triage: why brands need to categorise consumers into three groups Dominique Jean Larrey, chief surgeon in Napoleon’s Army, developed the concept of triage on nineteenth century French battlefields and saved many lives. This process can also be applied to marketing targeting and it can help increase revenue. How does this work in practice? Richard… Read more »

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From WARC:

Richard Shotton’s new book The Choice Factory is about the decisions we make every day, and the biases that complicate them. Richard sat down with WARC’s Sam Peña-Taylor to talk about the origin of his own interest in the discipline, establishing a culture of testing, and the importance of context. Behavioural science has entered advertising… Read more »

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From Branding Strategy Insider:

By recognizing the limitations of advertising brands can focus their advertising resources where they work best. This means that more brands will be able to afford a constant presence among key groups. … Who knows, maybe marketers who apply the principles of triage will end up benefiting too. … Contributed by Branding Strategy Insider by:… Read more »

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From Roger Dooley Blog:

Would you trust a doctor who didn’t understand physiology? An engineer with no knowledge of physics? Given how obvious those answers seem, it’s surprising that so many companies trust marketers who don’t consider behavioral science. Today’s guest, Richard Shotton, illustrated the absurdity of this fact with the above comparisons in his book, The Choice Factory,… Read more »

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From Mediatel:

The author of a new book examining the behavioural biases that influence what we buy tells Ellen Hammett how advertisers can make their campaigns more effective. … There are lessons the marketing industry can learn from these disciplines too, and in his new book, The Choice Factory: 25 behavioural biases that influence what we buy,… Read more »

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From M+Ad! - New Zealand:

“This book is a Haynes Manual for understanding consumer behaviour. You should buy a copy – and then buy another copy to give to one of the 97% of people in marketing who are too young to remember what a bloody Haynes Manual is!” “Richard Shotton possesses a melodious and balanced voice. In this short… Read more »

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From Marketing Week:

According to the peak-end rule, events are remembered for their most remarkable and final moments, so to stand out brands should concentrate on improving these aspects of the customer experience. … Most spread their efforts thinly, attempting to make marginal improvements to every aspect of the customer experience. That damns them to mediocrity. … Richard… Read more »

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From Ogilvy Change:

An interview with Richard Shotton and Rory Sutherland During the podcast, Richard Shotton, remarked “The book is called Choice Factory. The overall theme is how to apply social psychology and behavioural science to advertising … there’s only a handful of books that apply it to marketing.” … Enthusiastic and engaging conversation!

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Contents

Preface
Introduction

The 25 Biases
1. The Fundamental Attribution Error
2, Social Proof
3. Negative Social Proof
4. Distinctiveness
5. Habit
6. The Pain of Payment
7. The Danger of Claimed Data
8. Mood
9. Price Relativity
10. Primacy Effect
11. Expectancy Theory
12. Confirmation Bias
13. Overconfidence
14. Wishful Seeing
15. Media Context
16. The Curse of Knowledge
17. Goodhart's Law
18. The Pratfall Effect
19. Winner's Curse
20. The Power of the Group
21. Veblen goods
22. The Replicability Crisis
23. Variability
24. Cocktail Party Effect
25. Scarcity

Ethics
Conclusion

References
Further reading

Index



Foreign language editions of The Choice Factory:

Published: 12/02/2018
Edition: 1st
Pages: 218
Formats: paperback - ISBN 9780857196095
ebook - ISBN 9780857196101
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